What are the types of stroke?

Stroke can be caused either by a clot obstructing the flow of blood to the brain (called an Ischemic Stroke) or by a blood vessel rupturing and preventing blood flow to the brain (called a Hemorrhagic Stroke).1 A TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack), or "mini stroke", is caused by a temporary clot.2

Types of stroke: Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
What is Acute Ischemic Stroke?

What is Acute Ischemic Stroke?

Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke.1 It accounts for about 87 % of all strokes.3

AIS occurs when a clot blocks a blood vessel and stops blood from flowing as it should to the brain.3

In fact, if a blood vessel in the brain is narrowed or blocked, the resulting lack of blood and oxygen can cause irreversible brain damage in only minutes.4

For every minute a large stroke is untreated, the brain loses 1.9 million cells. This is often summarized by the phrase, “Time is brain.”5

In this short video we will explore:

  • The different types of Acute Ischemic Strokes which may occur
  • The signs and Symptoms associated with AIS
  • Diagnosis and screening 
  • Treatment options 
What is a Brain Aneurysm?

What is a Brain Aneurysm?

A brain aneurysm is a weak, bulging area in an artery due to a weakness in the vessel wall.

Unruptured aneurysms may have a risk of rupture resulting in blood flow into the surrounding area of the brain. The annual rate of rupture is approximately 6 - 10 per 100,000 people.

Most unruptured aneurysms don't cause symptoms; instead, they only cause symptoms when they rupture and bleed.

In this short video we will explore:

  • The causes of brain aneurysms
  • The signs and symptoms associated with aneurysms
  • Diagnosis and identification
  • and treatment options.
What is Chronic Subdural Hematoma?

What is Chronic Subdural Hematoma?

Subdural hematoma, or SDH, occurs when a hematoma, or pool of blood, forms beneath the brain’s outer covering.8,9

The most common cause of chronic SDH is thought to be a combination of any kind of head injury, even if it’s minor, and chronic inflammation. Other known risk factors include age 60 and older, seizures, alcoholism, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney failure, blood disorders, and drugs that help prevent blood clots, such as anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. Given these risk factors, chronic SDH tends to occur more often in the elderly.9,10

Patients may have a variety of symptoms depending on the size and location of the SDH, including nausea, vomiting, seizures, and stroke-like symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, confusion, limb weakness, and trouble walking, speaking, or swallowing.

SDH are typically treated with a medication. Depending on the severity of symptoms, surgery or other procedures could be recommended.9

References

  1. Taber’s Online Medical Dictionary. Accessed January 5, 2021.
  2. Smith WS, Johnson SC, Hemphill JC III. Cerebrovascular diseases. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. Accessed January 6, 2021. [Harrisons Ch 446]
  3. American Stroke Association Ischemic Stroke (Clots). Accessed June 21, 2021.
  4. Vanderah TW, Gould DJ. Nolte’s the Human Brain: An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016. [Vanderah 2016]
  5. Saver JL. Time is brain–quantified. Stroke. 2006;37:263-266.
  6. Brain Aneurysm Foundation Statistics and Facts. Accessed June 21, 2021.
  7. Hemphill JC III, Smith WS, Gress DR. Neurologic critical care, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. Accessed January 5, 2021. [Harrisons Ch 330]
  8. National Institutes of Health/U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Chronic subdural hematoma. Accessed December 15, 2020.
  9. Soleman J, Taussky P, Fandino J, and Muroi C. Evidence-based treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. In: Farid Sadaka, ed. Traumatic Brain Injury. IntechOpen. 2014. DOI: 10.5772/57336. Accessed December 15, 2020.
  10. Sim Y-W, Min K-S, Lee M-S, et al. Recent changes in risk factors of chronic subdural hematoma. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2012:234-239.

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