MONARCH™ Bibliography

Clinical Outcome

1. Murgu S, et al. Demographic and Lesion Characteristics in the First 443 Subjects Enrolled in a Multicenter Observational Real-World Robotic Bronchoscopy Study: Interim Results From TARGET. AABIP (2022). Poster. 

2. Agrawal A, et al. Factors Associated with Diagnostic Accuracy of Robotic Bronchoscopy with 12-month Follow-Up. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2022). 

3. Ekeke CN, et al. Lung Nodule Evaluation Using Robotic- Assisted Bronchoscopy at a Veteran’s Affairs Hospital. Journal of Clinical Medicine 10.16 (2021): 3671. 

4. Chen AC, et al. Robotic bronchoscopy for peripheral pulmonary lesions: a multicenter pilot and feasibility study (BENEFIT). Chest 159.2 (2021): 845-852. 

5. Chaddha U, et al. Robot-assisted bronchoscopy for pulmonary lesion diagnosis: results from the initial multicenter experience. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 19.1 (2019): 1-7.

Methodological Research

6. Vachani A, et al. Diagnostic Yield of Technologies for Biopsy of Lung Lesions: Using an Advanced Optimization Approach to Compare Single-Arm Bronchoscopy Trials. Chest 162.4 (2022): A2118-A2119

7. Pyarali F, Hakami N, and Chaux GE. Meta Analysis of Diagnostic Yield and Complications with Robotic-Assisted Navigation Bronchoscopy. Chest. 16 October 2022. Nashville, TN. Procedure. 

8. Anil V, et al. The impact of alternative approaches to diagnostic yield calculation in studies of bronchoscopy. Chest. 2022 May 1;161(5): 1426-8.

Compatibility Studies 

9. Cumbo-Nacheli G, et al. Robotic-assisted Bronchoscopy and Cone-beam CT: A Retrospective Series. Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology 29.4 (2022): 303-306. 

10. Chan JWY, et al. Robotic Assisted-Bronchoscopy With Cone-Beam CT ICG Dye Marking for Lung Nodule Localization: Experience Beyond USA. Frontiers in Surgery, 9 (2022). 

11. Monterroso C, et al. A Case Series of Intra-Procedure Cone Beam Computed Tomography Utilizing Monarch™ Robotic Navigational Bronchoscopy. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (2020) 201:A6780. 

Lung Vision 
12. Hedstrom G, and Wagh A. Combining Real-Time 3-D Imaging and Augmented Fluoroscopy with Robotic Bronchoscopy for Diagnosis of Peripheral Lung Nodules. Chest 162.4 (2022): A2082. 

13. Wagh A, et al. Combining the Use of Robotic Bronchoscopy with Augmented Fluoroscopy to Diagnose Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions. Clin Oncol 6 (2021): 1811. 

Dye Marking 
14. Chan JWY, et al. Robotic Assisted-Bronchoscopy With Cone-Beam CT ICG Dye Marking for Lung Nodule Localization: Experience Beyond USA. Frontiers in Surgery 9 (2022). 

15. Ronak C, et al. The Use of Robotic Bronchoscopy for Visceral Pleura Marking Prior to Surgical Resection of Pulmonary Nodules. Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine Volume 10:4 (2020)

Monarch Case Studies

Small Nodules 
16. Renuka R, et al. High diagnostic yield in sampling sub-centimeter peripheral pulmonary nodules with robotic-assisted bronchoscopy. Chest 160.4 (2021): A2039. 

Malakoplakia Diagnosis 
17. Kim J, et al. Robotic-Assisted Bronchoscopy to Diagnose Pulmonary Malakoplakia. Interesting and Challenging Cases in Interventional Pulmonology. ATS (2021). Poster. 

Cavitary Pulmonary Lesions 
18. Caro LG, and Thomas JM. Robotic-Assisted Bronchoscopy: A Potential New Tool For Cavitary Pulmonary Lesions. Chest 162.4 (2022): A2094.

Monarch Feasibility Studies 

19. McCandless M, et al. A soft robot for peripheral lung cancer diagnosis and therapy. Soft Robotics 9.4 (2022): 754-766. 

20. Murgu SD. Robotic assisted-bronchoscopy: technical tips and lessons learned from the initial experience with sampling peripheral lung lesions. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 19.1 (2019): 1-8. 

21. Rojas-Solano JR, Ugalde-Gamboa L, and Machuzak M, Robotic bronchoscopy for diagnosis of suspected lung cancer: a feasibility study. Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology 25.3 (2018): 168.

Preclinical Monarch Studies 

22. Chen AC, et al. Accuracy of a robotic endoscopic system in cadaver models with simulated tumor targets: ACCESS study. Respiration 99.1 (2020): 56-61. 

23. Chen AC, and Gillespie CT. Robotic endoscopic airway challenge: REACH assessment. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 106.1 (2018): 293-297.


24. Bhadra K, et al. Lung navigation ventilation protocol to optimize biopsy of peripheral lung lesions. Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology 29.1 (2022): 7-17.

CT-To-Body Divergence 

25. Reisenauer J, et al. Combining Shape-Sensing Robotic Bronchoscopy With Mobile Three-Dimensional Imaging to Verify Tool-in-Lesion and Overcome Divergence: A Pilot Study. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes 6.3 (2022): 177-185. 

26. Pritchett MA, et al. Virtual or reality: divergence between preprocedural computed tomography scans and lung anatomy during guided bronchoscopy. Journal of Thoracic Disease 12.4 (2020): 1595.

Robotic-Assisted Bronchoscopy Reviews 

27. Agrawal AD, Hogarth DK, and Septimiu M. Robotic bronchoscopy for pulmonary lesions: a review of existing technologies and clinical data. Journal of Thoracic Disease 12.6 (2020): 3279. 

28. Cicenia J, Avasarala SK, and Gildea TR. Navigational bronchoscopy: a guide through history, current use, and developing technology. Journal of Thoracic Disease 12.6 (2020): 3263. 

29. Fielding D, and Masahide O. Technologies for targeting the peripheral pulmonary nodule including robotics. Respirology 25.9 (2020): 914-923. 

30. Kumar A, et al. Robotic Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesion Biopsy: Evidence-Based Review of the Two Platforms. Diagnostics 11.8 (2021): 1479. 

31. Ho E, et al. What should we realistically expect from robotic bronchoscopy in the near future? Journal of Thoracic Disease 13.1 (2021): 405.


Indications for Use: The MONARCH™ Platform and its accessories are intended to provide bronchoscopic visualization of and access to patient airways for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

Important Safety Statement: Complications from bronchoscopy are rare and most often minor, but if they occur, may include breathing difficulty, vocal cord spasm, hoarseness, slight fever, vomiting, dizziness, bronchial spasm, infection, low blood oxygen, bleeding from biopsied site, or an allergic reaction to medications. Only rarely do patients experience other more serious complications (for example, collapsed lung, respiratory failure, heart attack and/or cardiac arrhythmia).

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